SPECIAL SECTION: ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR
1200 CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 89, NO. 7, 10 OCTOBER 2005
*For correspondence. (e-mail: [email protected])
Social and reproductive behaviour in elephants
T. N. C. Vidya and R. Sukumar*
Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India We present a review of studies on elephant social and reproductive our. While the social organization of the African savannah elephant (Loxodonta africana africana) has been intensively studied, that of the African forest phant (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) and the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) are poorly understood. Noninvasive molecular methods are useful in combination with behavioural data in understanding social organization and dispersal strategies.
Quick Facts about Elephants in Zoos
Wild elephants can walk ten or more miles a day, yet zoos commonly hold them in enclosuresof a few acres or less. (There are 640 acres in one square mile.) s is totally inadequate for earth's largest land mammal, which can weigh 7,000-10,000 pounds.
Elephants in Zoos A Dead End
There has been an explosion of knowledge about the natural history of wild animals over the last few decades. This has led to a growing understanding that als lead complex lives both physically and mentally. The result has been improved husbandry practices and larger enclosures tailored to the individual needs for a number of species held in accredited zoos. However, conditions remain virtually unchanged for captive elephants since modern zoos were first troduced. The results are that elephants suffer greatly both physically and psychologically and their premature deaths are a testament to this.
The Trade of Elephants and Elephant Parts in Myanmar
The Asian Elephant Elephas maximus was listed on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) at he first Conference of the Parties (CoP1) in 1976. At the same time, the African Elephant Loxodonta africana was placed on CITES Appendix II, but with the id decline in wild populations during the 1970s and 1980s, was up-listed to CITES Appendix I in 1989 thereby affecting a ban on all commercial trade of lephants, their products and derivatives.